|Issue № 1||
|DSc, ISEA SB RASTomsk State University, firstname.lastname@example.org|
|ISEA SB RAS, email@example.com|
|DSc, ISEA SB RAS, firstname.lastname@example.org|
assessment of connection
Summary: In the previous articles on the faunistic and floristic zoning of the northern Eurasia the results were summed up. At first, in was done on all classes of terrestrial vertebrate animals separately, then on fishes and cyclostomes and after that on all these groups together (Ravkin, Bogomolova, Tsybulin, 2015a) as well as on invertebrate animals and flora of woody plants (Ravkin et. al., 2014, 2015b). The main aim of this analysis is a complex biotic zoning apart from comparing the variants of the local zoning produced on the same basis and using the same approaches and computing instruments.
The analysis of biota as a whole is rather difficult, as the number of even vascular plants species and, consequently, their similarity due to flora can be significantly greater than that of invertebrate animals. Moreover, the number of species and diversity of invertebrate animals is greater than that of vertebrate ones. For this reason in joining species lists the regularities of flora heterogeneity may suppress the specificity of fauna variability in the case of their divergence. It seems that at first it is necessary to carry out the local zoning on the certain classes of terrestrial animals, and then on the whole group of the animals which fauna is described comprehensively. The data on the distribution of invertebrate animals are scarce, therefore, it is more reasonable to analyze a reference sampling of well studied species; for example, a part of beetle species. For that, we used the data on the species of Nemonichids, bark beetles, Anthribus and leaf-roller weevils (Ravkin et al., 2014; Ravkin et al., 2915). As a reference floristic group some woody plants were taken. These three samplings were conventionally considered as equal ranking. Thereto matrixes calculated for them were averaged out. This approach was effective in simultaneous analyzing soils, mort-, phito- and zoomass the values of which significantly differ (Ravkin et al., 2011).
Materials, methods and approaches to these investigations have been presented in the papers listed in the Introduction. The territory of the northern Eurasia (within the confines of the USSR, 1991) was divided into 597 regions, as it was in database “Biodat”(http:www.biodat.ru)
As a result, it can be stated that there are four latitudinal floristic faunistic zones more or less corresponding to polar desert, tundra, open boreal woodland and latitudinal zone from the northern taiga to the northern (meadow) stepper. In addition, there are at least two wedge inclusions of southern flora and fauna: Mediterranian ones – to the Caucasus and Crimea; and in the East in the southeastern coastal Pacific sub-region, those of Japanese and Chinese flora and fauna – to the Ussuriland, Sakhalin island and the Kurils. Such a penetration is caused by the heating effect of the Mediterranean in the West and by monsoons in the East. Kazakhstani and Central Asian sub-region can be considered as a wedge inclusion of semi-desert and desert conditions from the South and appropriate specificity of flora and fauna. The heating effect of the Atlantic results in diagonal boundary displacement from the Southwest to the Southeast, and that of the Pacific – from the Northeast to the Southwest. At that, the deviation from this trend is clearly seen in northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk due to the effect of mountain ranges of Eastern Siberia and Far East. In the spatial typological structure and ecological organization of heterogeneity of flora and fauna, two main trends can be retraced. The first one exhibits the latitudinal character of changes (from polar deserts to hot ones across tundra, open boreal woodland, taiga, woods, forest-steppe and steppe). The second trend has a longitudinal enclave spreading such as Crimean and Caucasian sub-region in the Southwest as well as the northern and southern Pacific coastal sub-regions in the East.
According to the classification, there are five correlated factors influencing the variability of fauna and flora. All of the factors are of integrated character, but their difference may be restricted by heat supply. It can be connected with dispersion of fauna and flora matrix similarity coefficients by 62%. Zonality and provinciality take into account 50% and 20%, respectively. Island effect and mountings determine a significantly less part of heterogenity due to relatively small area of islands and mountain group. All these factors can explain 73% similarity dispersion, that is the excess in heat supply due to environmental factors is 10% dispersion. Classificational and structural regimens, as inseparable combination of factors, determine 79% dispersion and add 13% to the explanation of heat supply.
In general, the results of cluster analysis of the heterogeneity of fauna and flora in northern Eurasia confirm with the concept on the spatial variability of flora and fauna in this region presented earlier. However, nonparametric statistical methods enable not only to confirm some previous conclusions, but to reject some of them as well as to show the low informative value of the number of common concepts, for example, about the significance of the Urals and the Yenisei as borders in fauna and flora heterogeneity. In the distinguished sub-regions a number of regions belong to a greater of lesser extent to certain zones and sub-zones (45 – 100% in each taxon, although their composition never coincides completely with zonal and sub-zonal one. Due to the difference in tolerance of animals and plants the boundary lines run out on the basis of plants do not always coincide with floristic and faunistic ones. At that, some diagonal displacements are retraced in relation to the natural zone boundaries; they are associated with various reactions of different species to the heat supply of the territory. The received results coincide with those received by climatic zoning to a greater extent than by complex physical geographic one.
© Petrozavodsk State University
Published on: 08 November 2017
The Atlas of the USSR. M.: GUGK, 1983. 260 p.
Blinova T. K. Ravkin Yu. S. Ornithofaunistic Zoning of Northern Eurasia, Sib. ekol. zhurn. 2008. T. 15. No. 1. P. 101–121.
Bobrov V. V. Aleschenko G. M. Scheme of gerpetogeografic regionalization of Russia and neighbouring countries, Voprosy gerpetologii. Puschino; Moskva, 2001. P. 31–34.
Voronov A. G. Kucheruk V. V. Biotic diversity in the Palaearctic: problems of study and protection, Biosfernye zapovedniki: Trudy I sovetsko-amerikanskogo simpoziuma, SSSR, 5–17 maya 1976 g. L.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1977. P. 7–20.
Kuznecov B. A. Essey on zoogeographical regionalization of the USSR. M.: Izd-vo Mosk. ob-va ispytateley prirody, 1950. 176 p.
Kurnaev S. F. Forest vegetation zoning of the USSR. M.: Nauka, 1973. 203 p.
Malyshev L. I. Modelling floristic zoning by cluster analysis of elementary allotments in northern Asia and Europe, Sravnitel'naya floristika na rubezhe III tysyacheletiya: dostizheniya, problemy, perspektivy: Materialy V rabochego soveschaniya po sravnitel'noy floristike. SPb., 2000. P. 20–36.
Mekaev Yu. A. Zoogeografical complexes of Eurasia. L.: Nauka. Leningr. otd-nie, 1987. 125 p.
Ravkin Yu. S. Bogomolova I. N. Tsybulin S. M. Faunistic Zoning of Northern Eurasia, Izv. RAN. Ser. geogr. 2015a. No. 3. P. 29–40.
Ravkin Yu. S. Bogomolova I. N. Tsybulin S. M. Comparative regionalization of Northern Eurasia by woody plants and ground vertebrates, Sibirskiy lesnoy zhurnal. 2015b. No. 5. P. 42–53.
Ravkin Yu. S. Bogomolova I. N. Tsybulin S. M. Legalov A. A. The zoning of Northern Eurasia on the fauna of bark beetles, Evraziatskiy entomologicheskiy zhurnal. 2014. T. 13. Vyp. 3. P. 271–279.
Ravkin Yu. S. Kupershtoh V. L. Trofimov V. A. Spatial arrangement of birds population, Pticy lesnoy zony Priob'ya, Yu. P. Ravkin. Novosibirsk: Nauka. Sib. otd-nie, 1978. P. 253–269.
Ravkin Yu. S. Livanov S. G. Factor zoogeography. Novosibirsk: Nauka. Sib. otd-nie, 2008. 205 p.
Ravkin Yu. S. Sedel'nikov V. P. Sergeev M. G. Titlyanova A. A. Hmelev V. A. Bogomolova I. N. Tsybulin S. M. Soobschenie V. Spatial-typological differentiation of the ecosystems of the West Siberian plain. Message V. terrestrial ecosystems, Sib. ekol. zhurn. 2011. T. 18. No. 6. P. 773–788.
Rihter G. D. Physico-geographical zoning of the USSR, Fiziko-geograficheskiy atlas mira. M.: Izd-vo AN SSSR i Glavnogo upravleniya geodezii i kartografii SSSR, 1964. P. 248–249.
Severcov N. A. On zoological (mostly ornitological) regions in extra-tropical parts of our continent, Izv. Russk. geogr. ob-va. SPb., 1877. T. 13. Vyp. 3. P. 125–155.
Semenov-Tian-Shanskiy A. Borders and zoogeographical zones of Palearctic region of terrestrial animals on the basis of the geographical division of Coleoptera. M.; L.: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1936. 16 c.
Trofimov V. A. Models and methods of factor qualitative analysis of communication matrix, Problemy analiza diskretnoy informacii. Ch. II. Novosibirsk, 1976. P. 24–36.
Trofimov V. A. Quality factor analysis of connections matrix in the space of partitions with structure, Modeli agregirovaniya social'no-ekonomicheskoy informacii. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1978. P. 91–106.
Trofimov V. A. Ravkin Yu. S. Express-method of estimating the connection between the heterogenity of animals population and environmrntal factors, Kolichestvennye metody v ekologii. L., 1980. P. 113–115.
Flora of the USSR. M.; L., 1934. T. 1. 302 p.
Chelincev N. G. Mathematical principles of animals census. M.: GU Centroohotkontrol', 2000. 431 p.
Ravkin Yu. S., Bogomolova I. N., Tsybulin S. M., Legalov A. A. Zoning of Northern Eurasia based on the fauna of pine flower, fungus and leaf-rolling weevils (Coleoptera: Nemonychidae, Anthribidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae), Evraziyskiy entomologicheskiy zhurnal. 2015. No. 14 (4). P. 367–373.
Holt Ben G., Lessard Jean-Phitippe, Borregaard Michael K., Fritz Susanne A., Araújo Miguel B., Dimitrov Dimitar, Fabre Pierre-Henri, Graham Catherine H., Graves Gary R., Jensson Knud A., Nogués-Bravo David, Wang Zhiheng, Whittaker Robert J., Fjeldsá Jon, Rahbek Carsten. An Update of Wallace’s Zoogeographic Regions of the World, Science. 2013. Vol. 339. No. 4. P. 74–79.
Udvardy M. D. F. Classification of the Biogeographic Provinces of the World Occasional No. 18 Int. Union for Conservation of Nature. Morges. Swittzerland, 1975. P. 1–48.