|Issue № 2||
|Ph. D, Russian Academy of Sciences Ural Division Komi Scientific Center Institute of Biology, firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Russian Academy of Sciences Ural Division Komi Scientific Center Institute of Biology, email@example.com|
|D.Sc., Ural Division Komi Scientific Center Institute of Biology, firstname.lastname@example.org|
Summary: The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphometric changes and the level of oxidative stress in the duckweed when exposed to strontium and copper ions. The laboratory culture of the duckweed was provided by the Institute of Biology, Komi Science Centre, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Science (Russia, Syktyvkar). The plants were cultivated on Steinberg medium (Steinberg, 1946). We determined the following morphometric parameters: specific growth rate, damage to the fronds (chlorosis and necrosis), the area of the fronds. Strontium and copper were added to the different media as filter-sterilized solutions of Sr (NO3)2 or CuCl2∙2H2O in a final concentration ranging from 0 to 1.58 mM for strontium and 0 to 12.6 μM for copper. As controls, plants grown on Steinberg medium were used. The area of the fronds was calculated from photographs before exposure and seven days after it (OECD, 2006). The images were analyzed using the Image J software (NIH, USA). To determine the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a TBA test was used. Duckweeds were previously contained in an experimental solution for four days (Uruç Parlac, Demirezen, 2012). As expected, both copper and strontium induced a dose-dependent decrease in specific plant growth (p ≤ 0.05). Strontium caused the inhibition of the specific growth rate of duckweeds as compared with controls since 0.6 mmol/l and copper - since 3.15 μmol/l. When exposed to 0.63 mmol / liter of strontium solution, the plants growth rate was reduced by 15.33 %, 3.15 μmol/l of copper solution - by 30 % as compared with controls. The maximum used concentrations caused a reducing growth rate in comparison with controls by 73.3% for 1.58 mmol/l of strontium solution and by 80 % for 12.6 μmol / l of copper solution. Based on this 7-day growth inhibition test, it was concluded that copper was more toxic to L. minor than strontium. The level of damaged plants increased with increasing metal concentrations (p ≤ 0.05). Damage in the form of chlorosis appeared at 0.3 mmol/l of strontium and 0.211 μmol/l of copper. Over 60 % of damaged plants were at 0.948 mmol/l of strontium and 5 μmol/l of copper. At high concentrations of copper and strontium ions, all plants are necrotic damaged. High concentrations of the heavy metals caused the surface area of the fronts to decrease. After seven days of exposure the area decreased at a strontium concentration 0.316 mmol/l, copper - of 0.63 μmol/l compared to control plants. Univariate analysis of variance showed that when the concentration of strontium and copper in solution increased, the MDA level rose (p ≤ 0.05). Strontium and copper provoke the development of oxidative stress in plants. The level of MDA in plants when exposed to strontium is statistically significantly higher than in controls, beginning with 0.63 mmol/l, and copper - 5 μmol/l. An increase in the intracellular level of heavy metals causes a disturbance in the oxidation-reduction balance in the plant cells and the accumulation of active oxygen species. Because of its greater reactivity, copper is more toxic than strontium. A high level of oxidative stress is accompanied with a significant increase in the proportion of plants with chlorosis and necrosis, a reduction in the area of fronds, and a low specific growth rate of plants.
© Petrozavodsk State University
Received on: 23 January 2018
Published on: 25 June 2018
Ahsan N., Lee D, G., Lee S, H., Kang K. Y., Lee J. J., Kim P. J., Yoon H, S., Kim J, S., Lee B, H. Excess copper induced physiological and proteomic changes in germinating rice seeds, Chemosphere. 2007. Vol. 67. P. 1182–1193.
Baszynski T., Tukendorf A., Ruszkowska M., Skórzynska E., Maksymiec W. Characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus of copper nontolerant spinach exposed to excess copper, Journal of Plant Physiology. 1988. Vol. 132. P. 708–713.
Ciscato M., Valcke R., van Loven K., Clijsters H., Navari-Izzo F. Effects of in vivo copper treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus of two Triticum durum cultivars with different stress sensitivity, Physiologia Plantarum. 1997. Vol. 100. P. 901–908.
De Vos C. H. R., Schat H., De Waal M. A. M., Voojis R., Ernst W. H. O. Increased resistance to copper-induced damage of the root cell plasmalemma in copper tolerant Silene cucubalus, Physiologia Plantarum. 1991. Vol. 82. P. 523–528.
Evseeva T. I. Belyh E. S. Maystrenko T. A. Regularities in the induction of cytogenetic effects in plants under the action of heavy metals, Vestnik Instituta biologii. 2005. No. 1. P. 2–11.
Gupta M., Cuypers A., Vangronsveld J., Clijsters H. Copper affects the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and its related metabolites in the roots of Phaseolus vulgaris, Physiologia Plantarum. 1999. Vol. 106. P. 262–267.
Halliwell B., Gutteridge J. M. C. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease, The Biochemical Journal. 1984. Vol. 219. P. 1–14.
Ivanov V. B. Bystrova E. I. Sergin I. V. Comparison of the influence of heavy metals on root growth in connection with the problem of specificity and selectivity of their action, Fiziologiya rasteniy. 2001. T. 48. P. 606–630.
Küpper H., Šetlík I., Šetliková E., Ferimazova N., Spiller M., Küpper F. C. Copper-induced inhibition of photosynthesis: limiting steps of in vivo copper chlorophyll formation in Scenedesmus quadricauda, Functional Plant Biology. 2003. Vol. 30. P. 1187–1196.
Küpper H., Kroneck P. M. H. Heavy metal uptake by plants and cyanobacteria, Metal Ions in Biological Systems. 2005. Vol. 44. P. 97–144.
Kanter V., Hausen A., Michalke B., Draxi S., Schäffner A. Caesium and strontium accumulation in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana: genetic and physiological aspects genetic and physiological aspects, Journal of Experimental. 2010. Vol. 61. No. 14. P. 3995–4009.
Karpova E. A. Potatueva Yu. A. Consequences of application of various forms of phosphorus fertilizers: strontium in the sod-podzolic soil system – plants, Agrohimiya. 2004. P. 91–96.
Kostyuk P. G. Calcium and cellular irritability. M.: Nauka, 1986. 255 p.
Kozhevnikova A. D. Seregin I. V. Bystrova E. I. Belyaeva A. I. Kataeva M. N. Ivanov V. B. Effect of lead, nickel and strontium nitrates on the division and extension of corn root cells, Fiziologiya rasteniy. 2009. T. 56. No. 2. P. 268–277.
Lidon F. C., Henriques F. S. Changes in the thylakoid membrane polypeptide patterns triggered by excess Cu in rice, Photosynthetica. 1993. Vol. 28. P. 109–117.
Lidon F. C., Henriques F. S. Limiting step in photosynthesis of rice plants treated with varying copper levels, Journal of Plant Physiology. 1991. Vol. 138. P. 115–118.
Litvinovich A. V. Lavrischev A. V. Strontium in the system of fertilizer (meliorants)-soil-plants-animals (human), Agrohimiya. 2008. No. 5. P. 73–86.
Luna C. M., González A., Trippi V. S. Oxidative damage caused by excess of copper in oat leaves, Plant & Cell Physiology. 1994. Vol. 35. P. 11–15.
Maksymiec W., Russa R., Urbanik-Sypniewska T., Baszynski T. Effect of excess Cu on the photosynthetic apparatus of runner bean leaves treated at two different growth stages, Physiologia Plantarum. 1994. Vol. 91. P. 715–721.
Marschner H. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Boston, 1995. 889 p.
Marschner H., Cakmak I. High light intensity enhances chlorosis and necrosis in leaves of Zn, K and Mg deficient plants, J. Plant. Physiol. 1989. Vol. 134. P. 308–315.
Miller E. K., Blum J. D., Friedland A. J. Determination of soil exchangeablecation loss and weathering rates using Sr isotopes, Nature. 1993. Vol. 362. P. 438–441.
Molecular-genetic and biochemical methods in modern plant biology, Pod red. Vl. V. Kuznecova, V. V. Kuznecova, G. A. Romanova. M.: BINOM, 2011. P. 348–349.
OECD Guidelines for the testing chemicals. Lemna sp. Growth Inhibition Test. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris, 2006.
Pätsikkä E., Aro E, M., Tyystjärvi E. Increase in the quantum yield of photoinhibition contributes to copper toxicity in vivo, Plant Physiology. 1998. Vol. 117. P. 619–627.
Pätsikkä E., Kairavuo M., Sersen F., Aro E-M., Tyystjärvi E. Excess copper predisposes photosystem II to photoinhibition in vivo by outcompeting iron and causing decrease in leaf chlorophyll, Plant Phisiolog. 2002. Vol. 129. P. 1359–1367.
Panou-Filotheou H., Bosabalidis A. M., Karataglis S. Effects of copper toxicity on leaves of oregano (Origanum vulgare hirtum), Annals of Botany. 2001. Vol. 88. P. 207–214.
Pendias A. Pendias H. Microelements in soils and plants. M.: Mir, 1989. 439 p.
Prasad M. N. V., Strzalka K. Impact of heavy metals on photosynthesis, Heavy metal stress in plants. 1999. P. 117–138.
Quartacci M. F., Pinzino C., Sgherri C. L. M., Dalla Vecchia F., Navari-Izzo F. Growth in excess copper induces changes in the lipid composition and fluidity of PSII-enriched membranes in wheat, Physiologia Plantarum. 2000. Vol. 108. P. 87–93.
Sadmann G., Böger P. Copper-mediated lipid peroxidation processes in photosynthetic membranes, Plant Physiology. 1980. Vol. 66. P. 797–800.
Sapozhnikov Yu. A. Aliev R. A. Kalmykov S. N. Environmental Radioactivity. M.: BINOM, 2006. 286 p.
Sasmaz M., Obek E., Sasmaz A. Bioaccumulaton of uranium and thorium by Lemna minor and Lemna gibba in Pb-Zn-Ag tailing water, Bull. Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016. Vol. 96. No. 3. P. 832–837.
Steinberg R. Mineral requirement of Lemna minor, Plant Physiol. 1946. Vol. 21. P. 42–48.
Stohs S. J., Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions, Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 1995. Vol. 18. P. 321–336.
Su Y., Maruthi B., Sridhar B., Han F. X., Diehl S. V., Monts D. L. Effect of bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr natural isotopes on foliar structure and plant spectral reflectance of Indian mustard (Brassica Juncea), Water Air Soil Pollut. 2007. Vol. 180. P. 65–74.
Tahtadzhyan A. L. Plant life. M.: Prosveschenie, 1982. T. 6. P. 493–500.
Tsukada H., Takeda A., Takahashi T., Hasegawa H., Hisamatsu S., Inaba J. Uptake and distribution of 90Sr and stable Sr in rice plants, J. Environ. Radio. 2005. Vol. 81. P. 221–231.
Uruç Parlac K., Demirezen Yilmaz D. Response of antioxidant defences to Zn stress in three duckweed species, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2012. No. 85. P. 52–58.
Vidaković-Cifrek Ž., Tkalec M., Šikić S., Tolić S., Lepeduš H., Pevalek-Kozlina B. Growth and photosynthetic responses of Lemna minor exposed to cadmium in combination with zinc or copper, Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2015. Vol. 66. P. 141–152.
White P. J. The pathways of calcium movement to the xylem, Journal of Experomental Botany. 2001. Vol. 52. P. 891–899.
White P. J., Bowen H. C., Demidchik V., Nichols C., Davies J. M. Genes for calcium-permeable channels in the plasma membrane of plant root cells, Biochimica et Biophisica Acta (BBA). 2002. Vol. 1564. P. 299–309.
Yruela I. Copper in plants, Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology. Vol. 17. P. 145–146.
Yruela I. Copper in plants: acquisition, transport and interactions, Funct. Plant Biol. 2009. Vol. 36. P. 409–430.
Zagoskina N. V. Nazarenko L. V. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system of plants, Vestnik MGPU. Ser.: Estestvennye nauki. 2016. No. 2. P. 9–23.
Zheng G., Pemberton R., Li P. Bioindicating potential of strontium contamination with Spanish moss Tilandsia usneoides, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 2016. Vol. 152. P. 23–27.